the information source about systematic errors
in analytical chromatography,
about which
you normally find nothing
in REGULATED methods.

This SITE includes the fundamentals of an alternative chromatography theory
based on TIME and statistics


The theory part has been added (as “Altern.Chrom.Theory”) because of a serious systematic error in GC as well as in HPLC made at the very beginning.
The accuracy and precision to measure and record chromatography data was in the early fifties quite under developped. Statistical thinking only was popular but led to a poor chromatography model. Especially SEPARATION is better understood if one uses a sample mixture instead of a single substance. Click onto -->   Alternative Chromatography Theory

The key effect which led to the alternative theory was the full size use of the standard data pair in chromatography:
retention time (tms) and the peak width in halfe height
(b0.5) but at highest time accuracy for a series of consecutive homologues like the
n-alkanes in GC or nitro benzoic esters in HPLC. This showed at first, that chromatography is a most accurate and precise analytical tool but it also showed clearly, that the classical theory cannot correctly quantitize NON chromatographic values like the dead time (tm) and the non chromatographic instrumental and technique based EXTRA peak width value (bm). The latter reduces quite strong the separation power of columns and capillaries.
How drastically poor time values disqualify the basis of the physical separation power is seen in data examples at the end of this chapter about the new chromatography theory.

Do NOT beliefe, that any regulation  / certification causes methods, which produce error free data for sure with YOUR sample, although the regulated modes may run error free. But in the minute you use YOUR sample it is YOUR responsibility what you report and sign ! Sharp enough ? Correct ? Or only regulated based on certified materials and tools ?
And don´t believe, that the classical theory helps much to improve the to-day analytical
C-techniques. Thinking in time instead of volume and flow is it !

Latest Analytical NEWS :        µ-PLC

Latest REK-paper:click         

Institute for Chromatography has been serving chromatographers from over 55 countries since 1972 in analytical CHROMATOGRAPHY. We specialized in correct, precise, affordable analytical data by GC, HPLC,  HPTLC / µ-PLC. Our top speciality is “finding and reducing qualitative and quantitative systematic errors”, a field about which only a very few experts are willing to work and report. However just the systematic error is most critical in all chromatography areas.
And this is one topic of this virtual Institute for Chromatography: Detection and Reduction of Systematic Errors. The other is: Micro Planar Liquid chromatography as the first “green” TLC technique: optimally small, very economical, very accurate and precise, as far as possible free from “bad solvents”. If you want to see a video: information is HERE .
We add proposals for elegant problem solutions, forgotten, never used or just not understood but important and most helpful details of gas-, column-liquid and thin-layer chromatography “secrets”. Now we are free to talk about.... (and invite you, to think about or just to do it. It will work).


founded in 1972

in Bad Duerkheim / Palatinate / Germany

we are in the INTERNET, globally, and in easier reach.

The international language of the chromatographers family are CHROMATOGRAMS but this site shows no one single classical elution chromatogram.
We feature a NEW look onto elution chromatograms: completely quantitative, covering the whole range of concentration,

equally in size, highly flexible, quantitative even in the  qualitative range.

On one page is the whole result of a chromatographic analysis concentrated as a figure with two axes: The y-axis is the QUANTITY axis giving area-%, weight-%, or mole-% in a linear or a logarithmic scale depending on the concentration range.
The X-axis is the QUALITY scale given in retention time, k-data, or index values again on a linear or logarithmic scale - see figure 1 below.

We use theoretical concepts which were developed at IfC in the last 50 years combining GC with HPLC with Planar Chromatography for most effective practical reasons. It is not important how the chromatographer gets information. ONLY important is that he gets correct and complete information as all decisions based on his data are only as correct and complete as the results of his most often vital work.

Browse our Web site for more information about other - and truly better - modes to check for the quality of a column, capillary, plate. And how to check the accuracy of sample taking - sample giving - quantitation. Finally the complete and correct evaluation as well as critical comparison in gas chromatography, high pressure column liquid chromatography and high performance planar chromatography is of fundamental importance and seldom done the full range possible. Too often details are overlooked which count or may be the answer for solving an analytical problem.

We have developed in hard years of global check outs by our many thousand course visitors new methods or tools for quality control widely unknown in the standard literature like the
“Error Detector sf4”. It finds systematic errors by simple mathematical statistics. Don’t worry: it is very easy to use “sf4” if some computer power and some specific software is available.


Figure 1 chromatogram comparison, new look. The identification run (the upside down line) represents saturated normal hydrocarbons (normal alkanes) from C14 to C32.  Useful for GC analyses with wide ranging quantity and quality values

All navigation words and symbols are in blue and underlined.

It is our policy to respect the privacy of individuals who visit the Site or provide comments to us.

Thanks to all of the hundreds of chromatography colleagues from
Germany, Slovenia, USA, Russian Federation, Belgium, The Netherlands, Hungary, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, South Africa, Italy, Poland, Chile, Argentina, Brasilia....,
who helped me by close cooperation and years of friendly qualified discussion for understanding, doing and teaching chromatography-   
                                                                                                            Rudolf E. Kaiser 
Updated July 1, 2020. 


About the first paper on Three Phases Chromatography see   HERE . Have a look into the µ-PLC SITE www.planar-chromatography-by-kaiser.com .

This is an Internet-only book, free available in the internet (only).
The latest paper of the author given at the 8th BALATON Symposium on High-Performance Separation Methods and the 15th International Symposium on Separation Sciences Siofok (Hungary) Sep. 1. - 4., 2009 is now available here . Title: Drastic Reduction of the Structure Error in Quantitative  Planar Chromatography. The latest issue of the OpenAccess book on µ-PLC includes first pages on water trace analysis - with unexpected results about fluorescing traces which chemisorb on silica gel of the plate layer.

There is a critical paper in this site - see “Paper 2010”. May be you also do not like any method
(over)regulation. So you may agree with the authors proposal given in this paper (ppt/pdf type).

The first ‘INFO VIDEO’ just for information and for nothing to buy or pay is in easy reach. No language problem because there is no word to hear. I invite you to start publishing detailed chromatography information and ‘tricks’, ‘tips’ via VIDEO !

Clicking the LINK below brings you to the first (mini) VIDEO about how µ-PLC, a most powerful COMPARE analysis technique, works. You need the proper plug-ins to see the video. It works at best under Google Chrome as browser in latest MAC’s, under  WIN 7.
The 4.5 minutes VIDEO (over 7500 jpg’s are crunched from 150 to < 20 MB) is limited sharp and done under critical conditions of minimized light because of the heat effect on a HPTLC plate. The easiest way to have a look onto this short (soundless) video is a click onto this LINK:


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